Human Metapneumovirus: What is it? What You Should Know About the Virus that Slipped through Everyone’s Notice

Discover the elusive Human Metapneumovirus: Learn about this unnoticed respiratory virus and stay informed about its risks and symptoms.

Everyone was focused on diseases like flu and RSV during the winter months However, Americans may have missed a vital pathogen called Human metapneumovirus, also known as hMPV.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this week announced an increase in the number of cases of hMPV across the country during the season of winter and spring experts believe this could be due to an increase in people’s capacity to detect different viruses.

Dr. Rick Malley, an infectious disease expert at Boston Children’s Hospital, stated that “there is a much greater focus on identifying the cause of (infections) than we’ve ever had.”

He attributes that focus to the COVID-19 epidemic.

I think that you’re hearing more about this particular virus because the importance of other viruses and the diseases they cause have diminished, the speaker continued.

This article will provide all the information you need regarding the virus-causing respiratory illness that was through the air this year with regard to symptoms and transmission and treatment.

What is Human Metapneumovirus, also known as hMPV?

Human metapneumovirus, also known as hMPV, is an infection that is affecting those with the respiratory and respiratory tract in the words of the CDC. While it can affect anyone of all ages, the agency declares that young children, elderly adults, and those with weak immune systems are more at risk.

According to the CDC, HMPV is a member of the Pneumoviridae family, which also includes breathing syncytial viruses, and was first discovered in 2001.

Human Metapneumovirus is just the Result of a Cold? What are the Symptoms of hMPV?

The American Lung Association states that mild symptoms resembling a cold are the norm for people with hMPV. For healthy people, symptoms typically last two to five days and disappear on their own.

The CDC suggests that the most common symptoms are:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Nasal congestion
  • Breathlessness

Young children, elderly adults, and those who have weak immune systems are at a higher risk of getting more severe illnesses and can suffer from asthmatic wheezing, breathing difficulties, and the occurrence of asthma-related flare-ups.

The American Lung Association reported that secondary illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia, can also be present and may require medical attention.

Read, FDA Approves Paxlovid for High-Risk Adult Covid Treatment

What is the Human Metapneumovirus Spread?

As with other respiratory viruses, hMPV is typically spread from person to person via:

  • Contact with an infected person
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • In the event of touching objects, you’ll get the virus

The CDC states that this virus is most likely to spread in the winter and spring, just like RSV, the flu RSV and cold-related viruses.

Do you require Antibiotics to Treat Human Metapneumovirus?

There is no treatment for antiviral for hMPV or a vaccine to stop the infection according to the CDC.

Because symptoms of hMPV typically resolve without treatment, however, they are not a cause for concern. American Lung Association says treatment generally consists of medications available over-the-counter to manage fever, pain, and congestion.

Medical attention is recommended for patients who experience more severe symptoms, such as wheezing. A doctor can prescribe an inhaler for a short period and steroids as per the American Lung Association.

Malley explained that antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria, but not viral ones. However, HMPV is associated with an increased risk of developing pneumonia caused by bacterial bacteria, which doctors typically treat with antibiotics.

“This virus may be a very important co-conspirator in causing pneumonia, particularly pneumococcal pneumonia,” the physician stated. “Just because a person has a virus doesn’t necessarily mean that there isn’t a bacterium nearby.”

Read, AstraZeneca’s COVID Antibody Protects Immune-Compromised

Motorola Unveils Vertical-Extending Rollable Smartphone

Discover the Latest Innovation of Motorola – a Rollable Smartphone with a vertically extending screen. Experience the future of mobile technology.

Key Points

  • The mobile phone on display at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona has a five-inch flexible collection that can extend to 6.5 inches by pushing upward.
  • The phone is still in the concept phase. You won’t be able to buy it anytime soon.
  • This design is at least innovative in a market where it has been challenging to find new features that would excite consumers.

Motorola has unveiled a concept phone that unfolds as the user slides it upward.

The mobile phone on display at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona has a five-inch flexible collection that can be extended to 6.5 inches by pushing upward.

Also Read, ABI Research: 220M NLC Units to Illuminate Smart Buildings by 2030

It is designed to be compact and easy to carry in your pocket, allowing you to multitask while improving productivity.

The phone won’t be available anytime soon. It’s still in the concept phase, so it’s impossible to know how much it will be.

Statista data shows that Motorola will only ship 51 million units by 2021.

This design is at least innovative in a market where it has been challenging to find new features that would excite consumers.

Also Read, Over 2M Websites at Risk: New Cyber Threat in Popular WordPress Plugin

New form factors such as folding displays are hoped to help change this.

Ben Wood, CCS Insight’s chief analyst, said: “It shows the rapid innovation in flexible display technology, with many concept products that experiment with a variety of forms.”

The device comes at a difficult time for smartphone manufacturers.

Sales in the mobile industry declined 11.3% last year as consumers tightened up their budgets. This trend has continued as people hold onto their phones longer, as major phone manufacturers’ upgrades are only incremental.

Lenovo, Motorola’s parent company, unveiled this week a rollable computer at its conference. The laptop, like the phone rises slowly vertically to allow you to see more web pages or multiple apps on one screen.

FDA Approves Paxlovid for High-Risk Adult Covid Treatment

The FDA first released Paxlovid available under an emergency authorization for use. The new ruling means that numerous studies prove that the drug is safe and effective.

Paxlovid, an antiviral drug made by Pfizer’s Covid, received full approval from the Food and Drug Administration on Thursday for use in people who are at high risk of developing a severe case of the virus.

Medical guidelines recommend Paxlovid for the treatment of moderate to mild Covid in adults over 50 years old and those with specific medical conditions that increase their risk of hospitalization or death from Covid.

This includes those with heart disease, diabetes, or cancer, as well as a flawed immune system.

Up to 75% of adults in the United States are at very high risk of developing severe COVID.

The FDA first released Paxlovid available in December 2021, under emergency use approval for people at high risk aged 12 and over. Following the results of an early clinical trial, the FDA swiftly approved the treatment with this designation.

The FDA’s recent decision means there’s now ample research evidence that suggests Paxlovid is safe and effective.

The treatment comprises two medicines: Nirmatrelvir, which blocks an important enzyme required by the Covid virus for reproduction, and ritonavir, which enhances the first medication’s capacity to fight off the disease.

Both Pfizer as well as the FDA consider the treatment an important tool in addition in conjunction with vaccination. It can help those at-risk Americans to manage their Covid illnesses and eventually save lives.

According to January estimates from FDA researchers, Paxlovid may “lead to 1,500 lives saved and 13,000 hospitalizations averted each week” in the United States using Covid rates.

It’s not clear what the future developments will be like later this year.

The U.S. has 1.1 million doses of the treatment everyone for free. When the government exhausts that, it will move Paxlovid’s distribution into the market for commercial use.

This implies that Pfizer will offer Paxlovid straight to healthcare professionals at a cost the company hasn’t yet disclosed. The current price for a course of Paxlovid is around $530.

Pfizer has seen Paxlovid sales increase to almost $19 billion by 2022. However, it expects sales of the medicine to decline by 58% by 2023

In March an advisory panel composed of independent experts of the FDA suggested the treatment in light of three of Pfizer’s clinical studies.

One study investigated the risk of high-risk individuals who had not received vaccination and had no prior Covid infection.

The study found that Paxlovid decreased the chance of hospitalization or death by:

  • 86% among patients who were treated in the first five days following initial symptoms.
  • 89% of patients were treated within 3 days, as per an FDA examination of data from the company.

There were no significant safety issues discovered in the study, as per the review. However, the agency did flag 137 medicines that could result in serious adverse reactions if combined with Paxlovid.

The FDA stated that the most commonly used medications that caused safety concerns included:

  1. Immunosuppressants, which are frequently employed to treat HIV.
  2. Immunosuppressants used in patients undergoing organ transplants.

The Office for Surveillance and Epidemiology of the FDA reported 271 cases of serious adverse events that interactions between drugs and Paxlovid could cause. This included six deaths and 147 hospitalizations at the end of January.

Altering the dosage of specific drugs and increasing the monitoring of patients. Making sure that labeling on products provides patients and their prescribers with information about possible interactions between drugs.

Some doctors have another aspect of concern: “rebound cases” of Paxlovid. That’s when patients who receive the medication notice that their Covid symptoms recur or they test positive shortly after their initial recovery.

The reports of these cases came in the days following Paxlovid first came on the market.

President Joe Biden and Dr. Anthony Fauci, his former chief medical advisor, both appeared to be able to recover from Covid after consuming the antiviral drink, but they later tested positive again.

The FDA review of Pfizer’s clinical trials found that the overall rate of comeback varied between 10 and 16 percent. Those who took Paxlovid compared to those who received a placebo observed no evidence of a higher rate of symptom rebound or moderate symptom rebound.

As per an FDA review, the results were valid regardless of the risks of getting sick. It was also valid regardless of whether the Omicron variant or a prior variant of the virus was dominant.

ABI Research: 220M NLC Units to Illuminate Smart Buildings by 2030

Network Lighting Control (NLC) predicts to play an important role in the design of smart buildings. This is particularly relevant when stakeholders, such as energy companies, building owners, and regulators, aim to enhance building performance. Additionally, it holds significance in improving the overall appeal of buildings, making it an important consideration for these stakeholders.

According to a report from ABI Research, the deployment of connected equipment in smart buildings is expected to reach nearly 20 million by the year 2030. This represents a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 22.6 percent, highlighting the significant growth potential in this sector.

NLC allows for intelligent control and control of lighting systems in buildings and provides additional benefits when paired with LED light.

Integrating lighting control and sensors to monitor light levels and occupancy levels increases the efficiency of energy. This integration also brings advantages in terms of occupant comfort and safety. Additionally, it enables efficient use of space and enhances the overall aesthetics of the building.

The growing use of wireless connectivity also facilitates the acceptance of NLC in buildings of all sizes and shapes.

Jonathan Collins, Research Director for Smart Homes and Buildings at ABI Research, emphasizes the importance of smart lighting to be a first purchase in the smart building market noting its widespread use for commercial buildings.

With a range of dynamic offerings and simplified installation and maintenance processes, NLC is expanding the capabilities of smart buildings. Collins adds, “This expansion goes beyond large-scale or high-profile projects, making NLC accessible to a wider range of building types and sizes.”

Different market players, such as established lighting companies like Signify as well as Acuity Brands — as additionally NLC providers such as Casambi, Enlighted, INGY, Silvair, and Wirepas and Wirepas — are harnessing wireless technology to accelerate the use of NLC in construction and retrofitting projects.

The installation, configuration, and reconfiguration of NLC systems are now performed by engineers using smartphones. This eliminates the need for dedicated network cabling and complicated topologies traditionally associated with such installations.

However, there is a problem with the NLC market. It is currently a split landscape that includes multiple methods and ecosystems of vendors. The fragmented nature of the market poses challenges in terms of standardization and compatibility among different NLC systems and providers.

Despite the ongoing efforts to build unifying ecosystems for NLC clients, they still face the challenge. This challenge involves evaluating various techniques, methods, and solutions to determine the most suitable options.

Their objective is to determine the optimal solution that meets their current and future smart building needs. This process involves carefully assessing and comparing different options to make an informed decision.

This study (paywall) from ABI Research provides valuable insights into the NLC market and outlines the new opportunities for intelligent lighting for buildings.

Hunt-Penta JV Begins $600M Las Vegas Convention Center Upgrade

In the wake of business travel taking off following the pandemic, Las Vegas wants to cement its position as a top trade show location.

A partnership between the Las Vegas-based general contractor Penta Building Group and the Indianapolis-based construction management business Hunt Construction Group, which control by the international contractor AECOM formed. The $600 million update to the Las Vegas Convention Center’s original property has just started construction.

The construction will continue until 2025. There will be a planning of construction to allow for minimal disruption during an event. More than 600 tradespeople expect to be part of the construction project. When completed, more than 15,000 sq. ft. of event and meeting space will be available in this new venue. This information has stated in the release.

The project will expand the 1.4 million square feet West Hall, which opened in 2021. The project teams will construct an outdoor plaza and an indoor lobby in the South Hall. This will allow direct access to the new function space. Additionally, there will be a second-floor boardroom and an extensive lobby connecting the North and Central halls.

Outside, the renovation plans include a brand-new parking lot. Additionally, a Vegas Loop station will establish to transport guests between the Wynn and Encore hotels, as stated in the press release.

Las Vegas’s Vegas Loop is about 2 miles long, with five stops along the center of conventions. However, The Boring Co. is an American tunnel and infrastructure company owned by billionaire Elon Musk. The company has recently announced plans to construct 65 miles of tunnels with 69 stations. These plans come after Clark County, Nevada, commissioners accepted the most recent expansion.

The year before, Las Vegas hosted nearly 5 million visitors to conventions. The cost of their visit directly generated an estimated 38,000 new employment opportunities. It also resulted in $2.1 million in wage income. Furthermore, according to a Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority report on the economic effects of the Southern Nevada tourist industry, it contributed $7.5 billion to the economy of the city.

The project was initially put to go into motion in the year 2016 but was subsequently halted due to an outbreak of COVID-19. The general fund of the LVCVA bonds is backed by the general revenue of the LVCVA. It is the 0.5 percent room tax. The proceeds of sales of the 10 acres Riviera parcel will use to fund the project, as per the press release.

US Manufacturing Sector Drops for 6th Month in a Row – April Report

“US Manufacturing Sector fell to a three-year low in April, as new orders increased slightly and employment recovered, The Institute for Supply Management, Arizona, USA, said on Monday that its manufacturing PMI reading was 47.1 in April which was 46.3 in March, though it was the lowest reading since May 2020. 

US Manufacturing Sector fell to a three-year low in April, as new orders increased slightly and employment recovered, but activity remained weak during higher borrowing costs and rigid credit, raising the risk of a recession in 2023.

Also Read, General Motors Halts Bolt Production to Accelerate Latest EV Models

The Institute for Supply Management, Arizona, USA, said on Monday that its manufacturing PMI reading was 47.1 in April which was 46.3 in March, though it was the lowest reading since May 2020. Reuters polled economists, who predicted the index would rise to 46.8.

The Federal Reserve’s fastest interest rate hike campaign since the 1980s is weighing on the sector, which accounts for 11.3% of the economy.

The PMI stayed below the 50-point threshold for the sixth straight month, showing manufacturing contraction. 

Following the recent financial market turmoil, banks have tightened lending. Additionally, spending has shifted away from goods, typically purchased on credit, and towards services.

Businesses are reducing restocking in preparation for lower demand later this year. According to government data released last week, private inventory investment dropped in the first quarter. This decline marks the first time since the third quarter of 2021. Corporate spending on equipment fell for the second quarter in a row. This decline played a role in limiting economic growth to 1.1% last quarter.

Despite easing inflation, underlying pressures on prices persist at levels that are not in line with the Fed’s 2% target. One major contributor to this is the tightness in the labor market.

The index of factory employment in the survey rose to 50.2 the previous month from 46.9 in March. Manufacturing payrolls have essentially stalled in the government’s closely monitored employment report, posting modest decreases in February and March.

After COVID-19, FLU is the new primary respiratory illness in US

Figures are indicating that in the United States more people are falling seriously ill with the flu than with COVID-19.



According to The Globe and Mail, “Figures collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that the weekly rate of hospitalizations for the flu has reached 5.9 per 100,000 people, a level not seen at this time of year in more than a decade.

For COVID-19, however, the rate has fallen to 4.3 per 100,000, far below the January high of 34.8. The figures for both the flu and COVID-19 are for the week ending Dec. 3, the most recent data available.

The dwindling severity of COVID-19 comes after President Joe Biden said in September that “the pandemic is over.”

Numbers of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. have been on the rise in recent weeks, with nearly 5,000 daily hospital admissions. But for COVID-19 to qualify as a pandemic virus, “the threshold would be that it is still causing hospitals to be completely disrupted,” said Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease specialist at Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. “And I don’t think COVID-19 has been doing that for some time.”

We have “ceased seeing hospitals being under siege by the virus,” he added.”


The case of COVID-19 now

They also said, “The decreasing severity of COVID-19 is a result of broad exposure to the virus and effective ways to treat it. A large percentage of the world’s population has now either been infected by COVID-19 or immunized against it.

In November, the World Health Organization reported a 90-per-cent drop in COVID-19 deaths, compared to nine months before. More than 70 per cent of the world’s population has now been vaccinated in some form.

New variants emerging today “are much easier to handle because of the immunity in the population,” Dr. Adalja said.”

For more updates on pharma and life science, Click here

Rising number of Covid-19 patients are concerning the experts

Suddenly, there have been seen a increase in covid-19 patients at U.S. hospitals arriving even as health systems contend with waves of feverish, coughing people stricken with RSV and influenza infections.


Increasing number of Patients

According to Washington Post, “Covid hospitalizations last week reached their highest level in three months, with more than 35,000 patients being treated, according to Washington Post data tracking. National hospitalizations had stagnated throughout fall but started rising in the days leading up to Thanksgiving. All but a few states reported per capita increases in the past week.

Public health authorities are concerned that the increase in the number of covid patients will worsen the strain on hospitals already under pressure from the effects of two other viral ailments, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, widely known as RSV.”


Experts Observation

“It could be in a week or two we are seeing many more covid patients than we are seeing RSV or flu, but the real concern is we will see a large influx of all of them really stressing out the hospitals’ capacity to care for these very sick patients,” said Foster, the association’s vice president of quality and patient safety policy.

“If we are going to see a big surge, it’s going to start to ramp up now, and it’s going to extend and probably peak in late December and early January,” said Columbia University epidemiologist Jeffrey Shaman. “The hope will be it will be somewhat mild, of course, and enough boosting and prior exposure is going to keep a large chunk of people out of the hospital.”

“What is happening this winter already and what we can continue to expect is influenza and RSV are not going to be at unprecedented low levels,” said Banner Chief Clinical Officer Marjorie Bessel. “We are going to have a high-volume winter like we have had previously in the pandemic. How much of a high volume due to all this coming together is an unknown.”

For more updates on healthcare industry, Click here.

NTSB calls for all new vehicles to include alcohol monitoring tech

The National Transportation Safety Board is calling on its sister agency to implement regulation requiring all vehicles sold in the US to include blood alcohol monitoring systems. The NTSB sent the recommendation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on Tuesday after completing an investigation into a horrific collision last year that involved drunk driving and the death of two adults and seven children.


“Technology could’ve prevented this heartbreaking crash — just as it can prevent the tens of thousands of fatalities from impaired-driving and speeding-related crashes we see in the US annually,” said NTSB Chair Jennifer Homendy. “We need to implement the technologies we have right here, right now to save lives.”​


Statistics on NTSB


According to statistics published by the NHTSA, nearly 43,000 people died on US roads last year, marking the highest that number had been in 16 years. While traffic deaths fell slightly between April and June, Ann Carlson, the agency’s acting administrator, said a “crisis” was still underway on the country’s roads. “We need NHTSA to act. We see the numbers,” Homendy told The Associated Press. “We need to make sure that we’re doing all we can to save lives.”


The NTSB says all new cars sold in the US should include an integrated system that passively detects if the driver is under the influence of alcohol. It notes that such a system could be combined with advanced driver monitoring technologies to prevent accidents. Separately, the agency recommends that the NHTSA incentivize automakers to include tech that prevents speeding-related collisions. The NTSB does not have the authority to regulate or enforce any safety measures it suggests. It has been calling on the NHTSA to explore alcohol monitoring technologies since 2012.


The NHTSA also faces pressure from Congress to mandate such systems. Under last year’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, the agency has three years to study the feasibility of various alcohol monitoring technologies and establish a final set of rules. It can seek an extension, however. And in the past, it has been slow to implement such requirements.


For more updates on retail industry, Click here.

US Legislation has passed CHIPS Act and is preparing semiconductor bill to become law

The United States Legislation is taking a new step where they are planning to clear its last major hurdle by boosting US chip production. The Senate has passed the bill to boost US chip manufacturing.


The Bill


CNBC reported, “The bill, known as the CHIPS-plus or Chips and Science Act, passed in a 64-33 vote. It will now head to the House, where lawmakers hope to pass it and send it to the White House for President Joe Biden’s signature before Congress leaves town in early August.” House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., said the chip bill “is a major victory for American families and the American economy” when it passed a key Senate vote earlier in July.


The production


CNBC has also talked about the production of the Chips by various companies producing computer chips. They said, “The package includes more than $52 billion for U.S. companies producing computer chips, as well as tax credits to encourage investment in chip manufacturing. It also provides funding to spur the innovation and development of other U.S. technologies.”


Benefit for chips production companies


According to Engadget, “Earlier approaches drew objections from both sides of Congress. Republicans were concerned the reconciliation bill would include unrelated climate, health and tax elements. They also said it risked funding Chinese manufacturing. Independent Senator Bernie Sanders, meanwhile, has expressed concerns the bill might reward chip manufacturers already rolling in cash, and was the only non-Republican in the Senate to vote against it.


The CHIPS and Science Act isn’t expected to affect production in the short term. It will take companies years to build new factories and otherwise upgrade facilities to tackle chip shortages and improve manufacturing independence. If things play out as its supporters imagine, however, CHIPS will hopefully decrease the severity of future supply chain crunches.”

ID.4 electric vehicle by Volkswagen has been started being produced in the US

Volkswagen has started the production of all its all-electric ID.4 crossover SUV in the United States. The company made the announcement on Tuesday. Volkswagen has plans to scale production of the ID.4 at its Chattanooga, Tennessee factory to 7,000 vehicles per month by the end of 2022 before further increasing output throughout 2023.


About the Vehicle


According to Engadget, “Dieselgate has shaken Volkswagen to its foundation, prompting the automaker to embrace a radical new direction and invest nearly $40 billion into EV R&D as well as the factory tech needed to make it. The initial result of that massive investment has now hit the streets in the form of a compact crossover SUV. Say hello to the 2021 ID.4, VW’s first EV for the people.


The ID.4’s on-paper stats aren’t particularly striking, especially when compared to some of its higher-priced, luxury alternatives. With a 77.0-kWh lithium-ion battery pack putting out 201 HP and 229 pound-feet of torque, the ID.4’s specs are very much in line with its gas model equivalents like the Honda CRV or similarly specced EVs like the Hyundai Kona or Kia Niro EV (though each of those only have 64 kwH batteries).”


Volkswagen’s Announcement


The company on their website talked about their plans to write a new chapter in their history. Thomas Schäfer, Chairman of the global Volkswagen brand said “We’re just starting to write a new chapter for Volkswagen in America, and it is very much an American story,”. He added “When we promised to bring Volkswagen EVs to the millions, it always included American workers building those EVs right there in Chattanooga. We couldn’t be prouder to see that vision realized today with our ID.4 electric flagship rolling off the lines. This is another milestone in Volkswagen’s ambitious electrification strategy for the U.S. market and globally.”

Biden talked about Public Health Emergency For Abortion Access

President Joe Biden asked his his staff to see if he “has the authority” to declare a public health emergency to address abortion access, a move that could release additional funding and give federal health officials more power to respond to state-level abortion restrictions.


Forbes has published some key facts about this.


  1. “During a bike ride in Delaware, Biden told reporters he had asked his staff to consider the impacts of declaring an abortion-related public health emergency.
  2. While Biden signed an executive order Friday directing his administration to defend abortion patients and providers, Democratic officials and progressives have called for Biden to take broader actions, like declaring a public health emergency and allowing abortions on federal land—even in states where abortion has been banned.
  3. A public health emergency is typically declared by the federal government following a natural disaster or infectious disease outbreak, and it gives the Department of Health and Human Services additional funding and flexibility to respond to the emergency.
  4. Biden’s executive order directs HHS to protect emergency medical care for pregnant people, but declaring an emergency could also give HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra the power to ensure healthcare providers can prescribe and dispense abortion medication out-of-state to patients whose home states have restricted abortion, Center for Reproductive Rights President Nancy Northup wrote in the Washington Post.
  5. White House aides and HHS officials weighed declaring a public health emergency after the Supreme Court’s ruling, Bloomberg reported Friday, but they decided against it at the time due to questions about its effectiveness and possible legal challenges.
  6. Jennifer Klein, director of the White House Gender Policy Council, told reporters during a briefing Friday the move wasn’t “off the table,” but she noted there were only “tens of thousands of dollars” in the government’s public health emergency fund, and declaring an emergency “doesn’t release a significant amount of legal authority.”