James Webb telescope captures a knot of galaxies in the early universe

Source: Engadget


The James Webb Space Telescope has produced its second revelatory image in as many days. Scientists using the observatory have discovered a tightly-packed “knot” of at least three galaxies that were forming around a quasar 11.5 billion years ago, just over 2 billion years after the Big Bang. The telescope’s near-infrared spectrograph not only showed that the galaxies were orbiting each other at high speeds (up to 435 miles per second), but that this was one of the densest known areas of early galaxy formation. The density is unusually high enough that lead researcher Dominika Wylezalek suggested there may even be two “halos” of dark matter merging in this area.

The quasar itself is unusual. The not-so-elegantly named SDSS J165202.64+172852.3 is a very red example that doesn’t emit as wide a variety of light as already-rare ‘normal’ quasars. These objects serve as active galactic nuclei and are powered by the gas tumbling into a supermassive black hole at the core of their galaxies.


James Webb Telescope


The imagery also underscores the strength of the Webb telescope’s sensors. Earlier studies using the Hubble and Gemini-North telescopes spotted the quasar’s outflows but didn’t reveal more than one host galaxy.

More study is necessary to determine how galaxy clusters like this take form and are affected by supermassive black holes. However, the Webb findings already promise to improve humanity’s understanding of how the present-day web of galaxies came to be, not to mention how quasars might stifle star formation through their flows.

This is also just the start of Webb-based quasar discoveries. The team noted that Hubble data suggests there may be still more galaxies twirling around the quasar. This is also the first part of a trilogy of studies using Webb to analyze quasars at multiple points in the universe’s history. These efforts could shed considerably more light on cosmic evolution in the years ahead.

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Earth is spinning faster and the days are being faster

According to scientists Something is making the Earth spin faster. As a result it makes the days shorter.


The Shorter Days


According to Engadget, “Over the last couple of years, time has felt more nebulous than ever. You’d be forgiven for thinking that days are passing by at an increasingly faster clip. According to scientists, that perspective is not wrong. On June 29th, midnight arrived 1.59 milliseconds sooner than expected. It was the shortest day in over half a century, at least since scientists started tracking the pace of the Earth’s rotation with atomic clocks in the 1960s.”


The scientific explanation


Leonid Zotov a scientist says in the abstract one of his articles, “This study is devoted to the determination of the admittance parameters describing the Earth rotational response to the components of the zonal tide potential. First, in order to better grasp the physical content of those admittance coefficients, we revisit the theoretical description of the length of day (LOD) changes at sub‐decadal time scale, where forcing is dominated by zonal tides and hydro‐atmospheric mass transports. This theoretical reminder specifies the rheological coefficients permitting to apply the hydro‐atmospheric corrections to isolate the tidal part of the LOD. Then, the admittances are determined from the LOD series corrected from hydro‐atmospheric contributions at the frequencies of the dominant zonal tidal terms between 7 and 365 days. In contrast of the former kindred studies, we both address the discrepancy of the results brought by various EOP series and the hydro‐atmospheric corrections on the LOD. Our study forwards the complementary corrections brought by the ocean, the land water and sea level changes. Below 32 days, removing the atmospheric‐oceanic excitation from LOD allows to much better constraint the admittance complex coefficients κ than applying the atmospheric correction only: the discrepancy with respect to modeled values is reduced up to 70%, and the frequency dependence of the imaginary part brought by the ocean dynamical response is confirmed. A systematic effect with respect to the values modeled by Ray and Erofeeva (2014),”